The Republican-led chamber reluctantly approved the new debt ceiling after the surprising deal reached by President Trump and the Democratic leadership on Wednesday.
The politicians filed briefs asking the justices to protect democracy by declaring unconstitutional the practice involving the drawing of voting districts.
The disaster aid measure could be coupled with an increase in the debt limit, a strategy that is already drawing criticism from conservatives.
A crushing September agenda could determine whether Republicans deliver on any of their big promises, including a tax overhaul, before next year’s midterm elections.
President Trump gave Congress six months to pass legislation protecting young, undocumented immigrants that lawmakers have not been able to pass for 16 years.